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NEWS

A brief summary of the Chancellor's Autumn Statement on Wednesday 8th March 2017:

  • An increase in the personal allowance in 2017-2018 to £ 11,500

  • An increase in the higher rate threshold to £ 45,000 (except Scotland, where applies only to savings and dividend income)

  • A 1% increase in Class 4 NIC to 10% in 2018-2019, followed another to 11% in 2019-2020

  • A reduction in the dividend allowance from £ 5,000 down to £ 2,000 in 2018-2019

  • A one year deferral in the starting date for "Making Tax Digital" , but only for unincorporated businesses and landlords, whose turnover is below the VAT threshold of £ 85,000 from the 1st April 2017 

  • Three measures to help small businesses cope with the changes to business rates, which are due to take effect from April 2017. It starts with a new £ 50 cap (in 2017-2018 only) for businesses that will lose their Small Business Rate Relief

  • A new 25% tax charge on transfers to qualifying recognised overseas pension schemes (QROPS), except for those who can justify a genuine need to transfer

  • The Government have announced  that later this year they will be publishing a Green Paper evaluating the funding of social care. In the meantime, an additional £1bn is to be made available for social care funding in 2017-2018. Chancellor Hammond denied the introduction of a "death tax". 

 

Please note that the above report is only our brief interpretation and understanding of the Government's budget proposals for the 2017 Spring Statement, delivered to Parliament by George Osborne on Wednesday 8th March 2017. These provisions are normally confirmed upon the receipt of Royal Assent later in the year. Jonathan Davis and his associates can not be held responsible for any errors, omissions or changes to the above.



A brief summary of the Chancellor's Autumn Statement on Wednesday 23rd November 2016:


  • The pensions money purchase annual allowance (MPAA) will be reduced from £10,000 to £4,000 from April 2017, in order "to prevent inappropriate double tax relief". This limit applies to people who have flexibly accessed their pensions and under the current rules, may be obtaining tax relief on up to £10,000 of recycled pensions income.
  • The tax treatment of foreign pensions and lump sums of UK residents will be fully aligned to the same extent as their domestic equivalents. Specialist pension schemes (s.615 International Retirement Benefit Schemes) for people employed abroad will be closed to new savings. There will also be other significant changes to the tax rules for pensions of people who move overseas.
  • The government renewed its previous commitments to further reduce the rate of corporation tax to 17% by 2020. It will also limit the tax deductions that large groups can claim for UK interest expenses, as from April 2017.
  • Anti-avoidance and evasion provisions were enhanced, including a new legal requirement to correct a past failure to pay UK tax on offshore interests within a defined period of time. There will also be consultation on a new requirement for intermediaries who arrange complex structures for clients holding money offshore, to be required to notify HM Revenue & Customs of those structures and to provide lists of clients.
  • With the main exceptions of pension contributions and advice, childcare vouchers, cycle to work and ultra-low emission car schemes; the Government intends to remove salary sacrifice schemes on a range of employee benefits. The tax and NIC advantages of most salary sacrifice schemes will be removed from 6th April 2017 as previously proposed, but there will be some transitional protections. 
  • Insurance premium tax will be increased from 10% up to 12% on 1 June 2017, the third increase in the past 18 months.
  • Following the announcement in the 2015 Summer Budget, the Chancellor announced tax changes for non-domiciled individuals, which will take effect as planned from April 2017. Where individuals become deemed to be UK domiciled as from this date, their non UK assets will be re-based to their market value on the 6th April 2017. More specific details of how this will be applied, or indeed elections to be made, are to follow.
Please note that the above report is only our brief interpretation and understanding of the Government's budget proposals for the 2016 Autumn Statement, delivered to Parliament by Philip Hammond on Wednesday 23rd November 2016. These provisions are normally confirmed upon the receipt of Royal Assent later in the year. Accountants And Bookkeepers Ltd. and their associates cannot be held responsible for any errors, omissions or changes to the above.


A brief summary of the Chancellor's Autumn Statement on Wednesday 16th March 2016:


  • Corporation Tax - from April 2020, the main rate will be cut to 17%, in addition to previously announced main rate cuts over the next 3 financial years
  • Capital Gains Tax- from 6th April 2016, the higher rate will be reduced from 28% to 20%, and the basic rate from 18% to 10%. However, residential property will still be taxed at current 28% and 18% rates on carried interest and residential properties, such as buy-2-let, etc.
  • Salary Sacrifice - these arrangements still high on the hit list of HMRC 
  • V.A.T.  - no changes in rates but registration threshold goes up to £ 83,000 from April 2016. 
  • National Insurance - from April 2018 employers will have to pay contributions on pay outs, (e.g. termination payments) above £30,000 where Income Tax is also due. Payments up to £30,000 for those who lose their job will remain free of both Income Tax and N.I.
  • Capital Allowances - businesses investing in new plant & machinery in Enterprise Zones can qualify for 100% CA for up to 8 years.
  • Insurance Premium Tax- standard rate will be increased from 9.5% to 10% from 1st October 2016
  • National Minimum Wage rates - will be increased (per hour) from October 2016: £4.00 (16-17); £5.55 (18-20); £6.95 (21-24)
  • Business Rates: from April 2017, small firms that occupy premises with a rateable value of £12,000 or less will no longer pay. There will be a tapered rate of relief on properties worth up to £15,000. From April 2020, rates will be linked to CPI and no longer the RPI, meaning bills almost certainly be cut.
  • Stamp Duty- from 17th April 2016, rates will apply to the value of the property over each tax band (not whole transaction). The new rates and bands: 0% up to £150,000; 2% between £150,001 to £250,000; 5% above £250,000. Rates for leasehold rent transactions will also change, with a new 2% rate on leases with a NPV over £5m.
  • Road Fuel Duty - main rate for petrol and diesel frozen at 57.95 pence per litre in 2016-2017, as will HGV VED and Road User Levy rates
  • Entrepreneurs’ relief - extended to include investors relief; available to investors (though not employees) who subscribe for new shares in an unlisted trading company from 17th March 2016. However, the shares must be held continually for a minimum 3 years before disposal
  • Class 2 NIC - abolished from 6th April 2018 (Self-employed)
  • Loans to participators (Close Companies) - from April 2016 the rate of tax increased from 25% to 32.5% to new loans
  • Disguised remuneration - immediate changes to restrict the effect of rules that allow employees to escape tax changes by paying for assets held in trusts (targeted anti-avoidance rule) 
  • Lifetime ISA - from April 2017 introduced for adults under 40. Savers can pay in up to £4,000 pa and receive a 25% bonus from the Government up to their 50th birthday. The funds can be withdrawn from age 60, or, at any time after the first 12 months if the funds are used to purchase a first home up to £450,000 


Please note that the above report is only our brief interpretation and understanding of the Government's budget proposals for the 2016 Spring Statement, delivered to Parliament by George Osborne on Wednesday 16th March 2016. These provisions are normally confirmed upon the receipt of Royal Assent later in the year. Accountants And Bookkeepers Ltd. and their associates cannot be held responsible for any errors, omissions or changes to the above.


A brief summary of the Chancellor's Autumn Statement on Wednesday 25th November 2015:

  • SDLT - From 1st April 2016, an extra 3% residential stamp duty land tax will be applied on the purchase of "buy to let" and second properties
  • Deeds of Variation - their use will continued to be monitored, but currently no restrictions are planned
  • Salary Sacrifice - these arrangements are certainly high on the hit list of HMRC; data will be collated from employers so that Treasury policy action can probably be expected rather sooner than later 
  • Farmers Averaging - after deliberations, the average period will be increased from 2 to 5 years from April 2016
  • GAAR - General Anti Abuse Rule - a new penalty of 60% of the tax will be imposed on all successfully prosecuted cases
  • Company Distributions - a consultation will shortly be commenced on the current rules and into attempts to convert income into capital
  • Disguised Remuneration - although effective from 25th November 2015, a consultation will commence in due course to confront cases where earned income liable to tax is avoided
  • Entrepreneurs Relief - Government will evaluate possible changes to the recent FA 2015 (ER) amendments; to disallow ER relief where "contrived structures" are being used to side step the latest changes 
  • From 2017/2018 - SDLT - proposed that the current payment time limit be reduced from 30 to 14 days
  • From 2019/2020 - CGT - payments on account due on the disposal of residential property will be due within 30 days of completion. (To bring the rules for UK residents in line with those recently introduced for non-residents). However, gains covered by PPR  (Private Residence Relief) will not be affected
Please note that the above report is only our brief interpretation and understanding of the Government's budget proposals for the 2015 Autumn Statement, delivered to Parliament by George Osborne on Wednesday 25th November 2015. These provisions are normally confirmed upon the receipt of Royal Assent later in the year. Accountants And Bookkeepers Ltd. and their associates cannot be held responsible for any errors, omissions or changes to the above.


A brief summary of the Chancellor's Budget Statement on Wednesday 8th July 2015:


  • The Personal allowance will be increased from £10,600 for 2015-16, and then to £11,000 for 2016-17.
  • The Basic rate limit is increased from £42,385 for 2015-16, and then up to £43,000 in 2016-17.
  • There will be an introduction of a new National Living Wage of over £ 9 an hour by 2020. Before that, from April 2016 a new NLW of £ 7.20 an hour for the over-25's will be introduced.
  • The Ministry of Defence's budget will rise by 0.5% above CPI each year to 2020-21. Up to an additional £ 1.5 bn a year will be available by that target year, to fund increased spending on both the military and defence agencies. The government will meet the NATO pledge to spend 2% of GDP on defence in every year of this decade.
  • The dividend tax credit (which reduced the tax paid on income from shares) will be replaced by a new £ 5,000 dividend allowance for all taxpayers from April 2016. Tax rates on dividend income above this new allowance will be increased to 7.5% (on basic rate payers), 32.5% (on higher rate payers) and 38.1% (on additional rate payers) .
  • Inheritance Tax is currently charged at 40% on estates over the tax free allowance of £ 325,000 per person, though married couples and civil partners can pass on any unused allowance to each other. However, from April 2017, each individual (with issue) will be able to utilise a family home allowance of £ 175,000, so that their property, up to value of £ 1,000,000 can be subsequently passed on to their children or grandchildren, tax free.   (i.e. £ 325,000 + £ 175,000 = £ 500,000 X 2 persons). Note that the additional allowance applies on the children/grandchildren, and  the allowance will be gradually withdrawn for estates valued in excess of £ 2,000,000.
  • From April 2016, the maximum tax free sum that people earning in excess of £ 150,000 per year can pay into a pension will be reduced. This contribution for most people is currently £ 40,000, plus allowances for up to 3 years unused carry forward. 
  • Corporation Tax will be reduced to 19% in 2017, then 18% in 2020 (was 28% in 2010). Over one million business will benefit.
  • The annual investment allowance will be permanently increased to £ 200,000 from January 2016. Subject to qualifying rules, businesses can take full tax relief in the year items are purchased, rather than over a number of years.
  • The Employment Allowance will increase from £ 2,000 to £ 3,000 in April 2016. Businesses will be able to employ 4 people full time on the National Living Wage, and pay no National Insurance at all.
  • The standard rate of Insurance Premium Tax will be increased from 6% to 9.5%, in November 2015.
  • "Buy-to-let" landlords: The tax relief on finance costs (mortgage interest) will be restricted down to 20% by April 2020. As from (a) 2017-18, the allowance = 75% finance costs + 25% basic rate; (b) 2018-19, allowance = 50% finance costs + 50% basic rate; (c) 2019-20, allowance = 25% finance costs + 75% basic rate; (d) 2020-21 onwards, all finance costs will be given at basic rate. Individuals will be able to claim a basic rate tax relief from their income tax liability, on the portion of finance costs not deducted in calculating the profit. Any excess finance costs may be carried forward to following years, if the tax relief has been limited to 20% of the profits of the business in the tax year. In addition, from April 2016 the "wear and tear" allowance, which gave relief whether justified or not, will be replaced by a new system, that allows relief only against actual expenditure on replacement furnishings.
  • Permanent "non-dom" status will be abolished from April 2017, for anyone who has been resident in the U.K. for 15 of the past 20 years. (Only then can they continue to avoid pay tax on offshore income, unless brought into the U.K.)
  • The Chancellor announced that the welfare system will be reformed to make it fairer for the taxpayers who pay for it, but whilst continuing to support the most vulnerable in society. The main items were (a) working-age benefits will be frozen for 4 years from 2016-17; (b) the household benefit cap will be reduced to £ 20,000 (£ 23,000 London); (c) support through Child Tax Credit will be limited to 2 children born before April 2017; (d) those aged 18 to 21 on Universal Tax Credit will have to apply for an apprenticeship or a traineeship, gain work based skills, or go on a work placement 6 months after the start of their claim; (e) rents for social housing will be reduced by 1% a year for 4 years, and tenants on higher incomes - £ 30,000 (£ 40,000 London) will be required to pay market rate, or near market rate rents. 
  • Banking reform: (a) new 8% tax on profits from January 2016; (b) phased reduction in rate of the Bank Levy, down from 0.21% to 0.1% between 2016 and 2021; (c) excluding U.K. banks' overseas subsidiaries from the Bank Levy from January 2021. 
Please note that the above report is only our brief interpretation and understanding of the Government's budget proposals for the 2015 Emergency Summer Budget, delivered to Parliament by George Osborne on Wednesday 8th July 2015. These provisions are normally confirmed upon the receipt of Royal Assent later in the year. Accountants And Bookkeepers Ltd. and their associates cannot be held responsible for any errors, omissions or changes to the above.


A brief summary of the Chancellor's Budget Statement on Wednesday 18th March 2015:


  • The Personal allowance will be increased to £10,800 for 2016-17, and then to £11,000 for 2017-18.
  • The Basic rate limit is increased to £42,700 for 2016-17, and then up to £43,300 in 2017-18.
  • There will be an introduction of a new personal savings allowance of £1,000 for basic rate taxpayers (but restricted to £500 for higher rate taxpayers).
  • A new increased flexibility with ISAs, to enable withdrawal and replacement of money in the same tax year, but most importantly, without losing the tax advantage; also, the introduction of a new "help to buy ISA".
  • Abolition of the income tax self-assessment tax return, which will be replaced by a digital tax account.
  • Abolition of Class 2 NICs, to be enacted in the next Parliament.
Main income tax allowances            2014-15          2015-16

Personal allowance  £ 10,000      £10,600

Personal allowance reduced if adjusted net income exceeds*  £100,000    £100,000

* £1 reduction for every £2 of additional income over the income threshold.

Transferable tax allowance for married couples/civil partners where
there is no entitlement to married couple’s allowance and where
neither spouse/civil partner pays more than basic rate tax   N/A                                        £1,060                                                         

Blind person’s allowance     £2,230           £2,290

Child benefit charge: 1% of benefit for each £100 of adjusted
net income between  £50,000-£60,000



Savings income tax allowances       2014-15          2015-16


The first £2,880 of savings income                                                       10%                                         N/A

The first £5,000 of savings income                                                       N/A                                           0%

In most cases savings income
is
 treated as the "top slice"
of ones combined income.  



Dividends allowances                       2014-15          2015-16

Within the starting rate band                                                                  10%                                         N/A

Within the starting rate band                                                                  N/A                                           0%

In the basic rate band                                                                              N/A                                         10%

In the higher rate band                                                                         32.5%                                    32.5%

In the highest rate band                                                                        37.5%                                    37.5%

Please note that the above report is only our brief interpretation and understanding of the Government's budget proposals for the 2015 Budget, delivered to Parliament by George Osborne on Wednesday 18th March 2015. These provisions are normally confirmed upon the receipt of Royal Assent later in the year. Accountants And Bookkeepers Ltd. and their associates can not be held responsible for any errors, omissions or changes to the above.



A brief summary of the Chancellor's Autumn Statement on Wednesday 3rd December 2014:


  • SDLT - residential stamp duty land tax is amended from midnight 3rd December, with buyers now paying a rate of duty based upon that portion of the purchase sum that falls within each band, as with income tax. Approximately 98% of home buyers are expected to be net beneficiaries of these changes. The rates and thresholds have been revised so that: 
  1. Value £ 0 - £ 125,000 Rate 0 %
  2. Value £ 125,001 - £ 250,000 Rate 2%
  3. Value £ 250,001 - £ 925,000 Rate 5%
  4. Value £ 925,001 - £ 1,500,000 Rate 10%
  5. Value in excess of £ 1,500,000 Rate 12%

  • ISAs - Both spouses and civil partners will be able to inherit their deceased ISAs and ISA allowances
  • Pension Annuity payments - their tax treatment will be treated as with "flexi access drawdowns". From now on, if a person dies before the age of 75 years, their surviving beneficiary's income  from these will be tax free
  • "Non doms" - non domiciled tax payers will pay more on the remittance basis of taxation. There may in future be an election applying for a minimum of 3 years
  • Anti Avoidance - an expanded range of measures, to include the sometimes called "corporate inversion" , whereby some multi-national companies may have taken steps to avoid paying corporation tax on profits earned in the U.K., by "diverting" these profits to a low tax domicile abroad. As from the 1st April 2015, these "diverted" profits will have a tax of 25% applied
  • APD - Air Passenger Duty. Abolished for children under 12 as from 1st May 2015, and for the under 16's from 2016 
  • Fuel duty escalator - frozen again
Personal Tax  - Personal Allowance - increased to £ 10,600 from 2015-2016
- Higher rate (40%) threshold - increased to £ 42,385 from 2015-2016
- Employee B-I-K - a new statutory exemption for benefits below £ 50 from 2015-2016 
- Pension Annuities - beneficiaries will receive income tax free if received under joint life (under 75)
- ISAs - allowance raised to £ 15,240 from 2015-2016


Corporate Tax - Employer NICs up to the earnings limit abolished for apprentices under 25 from 2016-2017 
- R & D tax credits for qualifying expenditure (above the line) raised up by 1% to 11%
- R & D tax credits for small/medium enterprise schemes raised by 5% to 230%
- (However, tax credits not allowed to costs on materials sold from 1st April 2015) 

Business Rates - The doubling of small business rate relief continued from 1st April 2015 to 31st March 2016

Capital Gains Tax - From 3rd December 2014, individuals will be prevented from claiming entrepreneur's relief on      disposals of goodwill, when they transfer their business to a related close company


Main income tax allowances      2014-15         2015-16

Personal allowance £10,000         £10,600

Personal allowance reduced if adjusted net income exceeds* £100,000 £100,000

Transferable tax allowance for married couples/civil partners where
there is no entitlement to married couple’s allowance and where
neither spouse/civil partner pays more than basic rate tax n/a £1,060

Blind person’s allowance    £2,230  £2,290

Child benefit charge: 1% of benefit for each £100 of adjusted
net income between £50,000-£60,000

Age-related allowances

Person if born between 6/4/38 and 5/4/48 £10,500 n/a

Person if born before 6/4/38 £10,660 £10,660
Person if born before 6/4/48 (6/4/38 for 2015/16) reduced if
adjusted net income exceeds* £27,000 £27,700

Married couples/civil partners at 10% – minimum#  £3,140 £3,220

Married couples/civil partners at 10% – maximum#  £8,165 £8,355

* £1 reduction for every £2 of additional income over the income threshold.
# Where at least one spouse/civil partner was born before 6 April 1935.

Income tax rates and bands      2014-15 2015-16

10% starting rate on savings income up to *  £2,880 n/a

0% starting rate on savings income up to *  n/a £5,000

Basic rate of 20% on income up to £31,865 £31,785

Maximum tax at basic rate £6,373 £6,357

Higher rate of 40% on income between £31,866– £31,786–
£150,000 £150,000

Tax on first £150,000 £53,627 £53,643

Additional rate on income over £150,000 45% 45%

Dividends: ordinary rate 10% 10%

Dividends: upper rate 32.5% 32.5%

Dividends: additional rate 37.5% 37.5%

* Not available if taxable non-savings income exceeds the starting rate band.


Discretionary and accumulation trusts

Up to the first £1,000 of gross income is generally taxed at
the standard rate as appropriate:  10%-20% 10%-20%

Non-dividend income above £1,000 taxed at 45% 45%

Dividend income above £1,000 taxed at 37.5% 37.5%


Please note that the above report is only our brief interpretation and understanding of the Government's budget proposals for the 2014 Autumn Statement, delivered to Parliament by George Osborne on Wednesday 3rd December 2014. These provisions are normally confirmed upon the receipt of Royal Assent later in the year. Accountants And Bookkeepers Ltd. cannot be held responsible for any errors, omissions or changes to the above.




A brief summary of the Chancellor's Budget Statement on Wednesday 19th March 2014:


  • Income tax basic personal allowance will increase to £10,000 for 2014-15 and to £10,500 for 2015-16, and the threshold above which individuals pay tax at the higher rate of 40% will increase by 1% both tax years
  • Introduction of a new transferable tax allowance for married couples and civil partners from April 2015
  • New individual savings account from 1 July 2014 with annual subscription limit of £15,000
  • Class 2 NICs to be collected through self-assessment from April 2016
  • A range of changes to pensions rules will allow greater flexibility for individuals to access their pension savings
  • The Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS) will be made permanent, as will the capital gains tax relief for reinvesting gains in SEIS shares
  • For businesses, the annual investment allowance will increase to £500,000 or more (down from £2 million)

Company Taxation (Corporation Tax Rates)                                                              FY 2013                    FY 2014

All companies (except below situations)                                                                                  23%                        21%

Companies with small profits                               20%                        20%

20% rate limit                                  £  300,000               £  300,000

Marginal relief limit                                                            £  1,500,000            £  1,500,000

Marginal relief fraction    3/400                 1/400

Marginal rate    23.75%       21.25%


Capital Gains Tax                                                                 2013/14                    2014/15

Standard rate                                                                                18%                        18%

Higher rate                               28%                        28%

Trustees & Personal Representatives       28%                        28%

Entrepreneurs relief rate                                                               10%                        10%

Annual exemption (Individuals)           £ 10,900     £ 11,000

Annual exemption (Personal Representatives)           £ 10,900     £ 11,000

Annual exemption (Trustees)                      £ 5,450*        £ 5,500*

Note * = where there are several Trusts created by the same Settlor, exemption is apportioned. However, each Trust is entitled to a minimum exemption of £ 1,090 for 2013/14 and £ 1,100 for 2014/15. 


Inheritance Tax                                                                             Deaths After 5th April 2012

Threshold / Nil rate Band                                                                                            £ 325,000

Death rate                                             40%

Lower Death rate (where 10% or more is given to charity)       36%

Chargeable lifetime transfers rate                                                             20%


Value Added Tax                                                                                           2014/15                     

Standard rate                                                                                                       20%

Reduced rate                                               5%

Registration threshold  from 1st April 2014 (raised from £ 79,000)      £ 81,000

National Insurance contribution thresholds

2013-14 £ per week 2014-15 £ per week
Weekly Lower Earnings Limit (LEL) 109 Weekly Lower Earnings Limit (LEL) 111
Weekly Primary Threshold (PT) 149 Weekly Primary Threshold (PT) 153
Weekly Secondary Threshold (ST) 148 Weekly Secondary Threshold (ST) 153
Upper Earnings/Profits Limit (UEL/UPL) 797 (41,450 per year) Upper Earnings/Profits Limit (UEL/UPL) 805 (41,865 per year)
Small Earnings Exception (SEE) 5,725 (per year) Small Earnings Exception (SEE) 5,885
Lower Profits Limit (LPL) 7755 (per year) Lower Profits Limit (LPL) 7956 (per year)
N/A - Employment Allowance 2,000 (per year, per employer)

Class 1 National Insurance contribution rates 2014-15

Employee (primary)   Employer (secondary)  
Earnings (*1) NIC rate (*2) Earnings (*1) NIC rate (*3 )
£ a week per cent £ a week per cent
Below £111 (LEL) 0 Below £153 (ST) 0
£111 – £153 (PT) (*4) 0 Above £153 (ST) 13.8
£153 - £805 (UEL) 12    
Above £805 2    

Self-employed National Insurance contribution rates 2014-15

  Self-employed NICs  
Annual profits (*1) (£ a year) Class 2 (*2) (£ a week) Class 4 (per cent)
Below £5,885 (SEE) (*3) 0.00 0
£5,885 to £7,956 (LPL) 2.75 0
£7,956 to £41,865 (UPL) 2.75 9
Above £41,865 2.75 2

Fuel Benefit Charge

Company Car Tax Fuel Benefit Charge 2013-14 2014-15
Car Fuel Benefit Charge Multiplier £21,100 £21,700
Van Fuel Benefit Charge £564 £581

Van Benefit Charge

Company Car Tax Van Benefit Charge 2013-14 2014-15
Van Benefit Charge £3,000 £3,090
A Summary of the main Income Tax Rates and Allowances for 2014-2015 can be seen below:

Please note that the above report is only our brief interpretation and understanding of the Government's Budget Statement for 2014, delivered to Parliament by George Osborne on Wednesday 19th March 2014. These provisions are normally confirmed upon the receipt of Royal Assent later in the year. Accountants And Bookkeepers Ltd. can not be held responsible for any errors, omissions or changes to the above.
                             


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                            Contact Accountants and Bookkeepers Ltd. today!


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